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See our Home page, or in the U.S., contact your local Cooperative Extension office for assistance. Xalapa, Mexico: Instituto de Ecologfa. The Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major pest of commercial fruit in Central America and Mexico (Enkerlin et al. Epsky ND, Heath RR, Guzman A, Meyer WL, 1995. Florida Entomologist, 71(2):130-137. FOR ALL OTHER USES or more information, read Legal Notices. Cuticular hydrocarbons from six species of tephritid fruit flies. Deep Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, eradicated in Texas, US.,, NAPPO, 2014. Bait sprays have the advantage over cover sprays that they can be applied as a spot treatment so that the flies are attracted to the insecticide and there is minimal impact on natural enemies. are the most serious fruit fly pests in the tropical Americas (Norrbom and Foote, 1989), with the possible exception of the introduced Ceratitis capitata (CABI/EPPO, 1998). > 0°C, dry winters), Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye, Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches, Highly adaptable to different environments, Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc, Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food, Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally, Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally, Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant, Difficult to identify/detect in the field. Anastrepha spp. Identification tip: Leafhopper feeding causes roundish A list of the reported host plants of the species of Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae). Furthermore, most Anastrepha spp. The damage caused by this larval feeding means that true fruit flies are trouble for fruit growers. Predation on the soil inhabiting stages of the Mexican fruit fly. Dorsobasal scales of eversible membrane numerous, hook-like, in triangular pattern. Discoloring or shallow scarring of the rind, Surface fouling of the rind, which can be Journal of Economic Entomology, 104(4), 1204-1211. doi: 10.1603/EC11042, Blanco Montero CA, Sanchez Salas JA, 1990. Revista Colombiana de Entomología. Southwestern Entomologist, 40(2), 435-437. fruit. Hymenopteran parasitoids of Anastrepha fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) reared from different hosts in Yucatan, Mexico. Organismo Internacional Regional de Sanidad Agropecuaria. (Diptera, Tephritidae), pests of fruit trees in tropical America. Aluja et al. (Eficiencia de cebos como atrayentes de moscas de la fruta en El Salvador.). Phytosanitary Alert System: Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, eradicated in Texas, US. Diptera Data Dissemination Disk (CD-ROM) 2. 108 (3), 1324-1336. Male terminalia: lateral surstylus moderately long, in posterior view slightly tapered, somewhat truncate apically. Anal area: lobes large, protuberant, usually distinctly bifid; surrounded by three to four discontinuous rows of small spinules. DOI:10.1093/jee/tov082, Rull J, Diaz-Fleischer F, Arredondo J, 2007. Set 6. (1990) or the interactive key by Carroll et al. A survey on the occurrence and flight periods of fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) in a fruit growing area in southwest Nicaragua, 1994/95. sometimes at multiple locations on a fruit. Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries, 129-139. LIFE CYCLES Fruit fly development (life cycle) is dependent on temperature. > Year-Round IPM Program > Bloom > Invertebrate UK, CAB International, 1958. Especies de Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) en el Estado de Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries, 115-128. Statewide IPM Program, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California Some leaf chewing is DOI:10.1016/j.ympev.2016.04.020, Steck G J, 2003. Adults are about 1/8 inch long and usually have red eyes. young fruit causes scars that are deeper than damage from As in many Anastrepha spp., generally, the eggs are laid below the skin of the host fruit in clutches of 1-23 eggs. (Drew, 1982) and possible baits are ammonium acetate (Hedstrom and Jimenez, 1988), casein hydrolysate (Sharp, 1987) and torula yeast (Hedstrom and Jiron, 1985). 260, 4 pp. is usually a pest only on coastal lemons. scale also produce whitish material on leaves or twigs, but not on fruit. Darby H H , Kapp E H, 1934. in groups. BAKER AC, STONE WE, PLUMMER CC, MCPAHAIL M, 1944. Trapping Guidelines for area-wide fruit fly programmes. NAPPO. Mexican Fruit Fly (Anastrepha ludens) - Removal of Quarantine Area in Weslaco, Hidalgo County, Texas.,, NAPPO, 2015. Environmental Entomology, 24(6):1387-1395; 16 ref. xii + 571 pp. El género Anastrepha en México. Chemical methods for suppression or eradication of fruit fly populations, In: Drew RAI, Hooper GHS, Bateman MA eds. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 89. Adult females ovipositing on citrus fruit skin. Anastrepha ludens (Mexican Fruit Fly) - APHIS Establishes Quarantine in the McCook Area of Hidalgo County, Texas., USA: North American Plant Protection Organization. discoloring on the rind (left in photo) occurs when high Citrus rust mite russeting Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources Citrus Res. Journal of Economic Entomology, 77(1):198-201. Journal of Economic Entomology. Hernandez-Ortiz V, Perez-Alonso R, 1993. Ammonium acetate and torula with sodium borate. 2nd edn. 87 (4), 405-412. In the southern United States, the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludensis such a pest, and its incursions into Texas and California represent major threats to the agricultural systems of those regions. 97 (3), 1123-1130. Insecticidal protection is possible by using a cover spray or a bait spray. In: Robinson AS, Hooper G, eds. Anastrepha ludens (Mexican Fruit Fly) - APHIS Removes Quarantine in the Zapata Area of Zapata County, Texas., Thomas D B, 2003. root weevil, © 2016 Regents of the University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Fruit Flies. 1008. EPPO, 2020. Talisia olivaeformis (Sapindaceae) and Zuelania guidonia (Flacourtiaceae): new host records for Anastrepha spp. Phytosanitary Alert System: Anastrepha ludens (Mexican fruit fly) - Removal of Quarantine Area in Los Angeles County, California - United States., NAPPO. Hallman GJ, 1997. guavas, Psidium guajava), Rosaceae (e.g. peaches, Prunus persica) and a variety of other fruits are occasional hosts (Norrbom, 2004a). Hernandez-Ortiz V, 1992. In: Economic Fruit Flies of the South Pacific Region [ed. III., NAPPO, 2016e. amorbia-like damage is unusually abundant, suspect the exotic light Age and host effects on clutch size in the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens. Fruit flies of economic significance: their identification and bionomics. Jimenez ML, Tejas A, 1996. and mangoes [Mangifera indica]. Washington, D.C., 155 pp. Southwestern Entomologist, 20(1):61-71, Thomas DB, Mangan RL, 1995. (1995) and Heath et al., NAPPO, 2016b. 1 + 11 +6 pp. Anastrepha ludens (Mexican fruit fly)-Quarantined Area in San Diego County, California - United States.,, NAPPO, 2007a. Irradiation of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) revisited: optimizing sterility induction. A. ludens is mainly important on Citrus spp. Divert pests with poisoned border plants, baits or lures. Subscutellum dark-brown laterally; brown mark often extending onto lateral part of mediotergite. Citricola scale sooty mold Effect of cold storage on larval and adult Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) viability in commercially ripe, artificially infested Persea americana 'Hass'. Second Edition. Norrbom AL, Kim KC, 1988. Florida Entomologist, 78(2):235-246, Thomas, D. B., 2004. scavenger caterpillar cause button-end scars. All rights reserved. The third stage larva of A. ludens can usually be distinguished using the key by Steck et al. http://delta-intkey, Carroll LE, Wharton RA, 1989. chewing pests (such as earwigs and katydids) damage only young fruit, but damage W. Indies. Spiracular hairs short (about one-third to one-fifth the length of the spiracular slit), often branched in the apical third; dorsal and ventral bundles of 6-13 hairs, lateral bundles of four to seven hairs. (El género Anastrepha en México). Upon emerging, the tiny larvae continue to feed near the surface of the fermenting mass. Natural hosts of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the La Paz area, B.C.S. Jirón LF, Soto-Manitiu J, Norrbom AL, 1988. Eskafi FM, 1988. Journal of Economic Entomology, 87(6):1574-1579, Mangan, R. L., 2003. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency, 47 pp. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. scales feeding underneath. Anastrepha spp. Phallus 5.2-6.1 mm long; ratio to mesonotum length, mesonotum length 1.10-1.55. Random mating among Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) adults of geographically distant and ecologically distinct populations in Mexico. U.S. Habitat: The Mexican fruit fly has been an especially particular problem for the state of Florida because the fly has a strong preference of laying eggs in grapefruit. McPhail traps are usually used for the capture of Anastrepha spp. Anastrepha ludens (Mexican Fruit Fly) - APHIS removes a quarantine in the McCook Area of Hidalgo County, Texas., USA: North American Plant Protection Organization. Cutworm injury typically forms a meandering pattern, FAO/IAEA, 2003. Mangan RL, Ingle SJ, 1994. There is evidence that the adults of Anastrepha spp. Heppner JB, 1984. larvae of fruit flies. Consignments of fruits of Citrus spp., Malus spp., mango (Mangifera indica) and guava (Psidium guajava) from countries where the pest occurs should be inspected for symptoms of infestation and those suspected should be cut open in order to look for larvae. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 303-313. Fruit flies; Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 353-363., NAPPO, 2013. Bud mite EPPO Bulletin, 13(1). Da Costa Lima, A. , 1934. mites or spider mites that (1997) found that heating in a controlled atmosphere was more effective. Anastrepha ludens. Family Muscidae. Anastrepha ludens (Mexican Fruit Fly) - Quarantined Area in Webb County, Texas - United States.,, NAPPO, 2009. World Crop Pests 3(B). Mexican fruit fly is one of the world's most destructive invasive pests, attacking more than 40 different kinds of fruits and vegetables. Caterpillars US growers allege that they were infested with Mexican fruit fly. Observations on the West Indian Fruit Fly at Key West in 1932-33. Journal of Economic Entomology. chews older fruit as shown here. Biology of fruit flies. Aluja, M., Rull, J., Pérez-Staples, D., Díaz-Fleischer, F., Sivinski, J., 2009. Southwestern Entomologist, 15(3):327-331, Bush, G. L., 1962. Much damage may occur inside the fruit before external symptoms are seen, often as networks of tunnels accompanied by rotting. feed under the calyx of fruit are the common cause of a circular scar around The adults of A. ludens are unlikely to be confused with those of any of the other species of Anastrepha occurring within its range, except perhaps Anastrepha distincta, which has considerably shorter male and female terminalia. Bateman MA, 1982. Three spermathecae ovoid. by citrus thrips, caterpillar chewing is deeper and webbing may be present. 107 (1), 375-388. (Contribucion al reconocimiento de las moscas de las frutas (Diptera: Tephriridae [sic]) en Colombia.). brown apple moth. Distorted the button. A large number of commercially grown crops in California would be threatened by the introduction of this pest, including peach, avocado, orange, grapefruit and pear. Generic irradiation and hot water phytosanitary treatments for mango fruits cv. © Copyright 2021 CAB International. Forced hot-air quarantine treatment for grapefruit infested with Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae). This invasive fruit fly does not harm humans or animals but it poses a serious threat to the Texas citrus industry. Head: stomal sensory organ large, rounded, with five small sensilla; 11-17 oral ridges with margins entire or slightly undulant; accessory plates small; mandible moderately sclerotised, with a large slender curved apical tooth. The following diagnostic description of the third-instar is based on Carroll and Wharton (1989) and White and Elson-Harris (1992). Baker et al. 31 (1), 67-70. Female terminalia: oviscape straight, 3.4-6.3 mm long; ratio to mesonotum length 1.10-1.55. According to citrus producer Fred Karle, "If they find an actual live Mexican fly or larvae on a grove, well then a certain area there will be quarantined and will just have to go to juice, which is a big loss." Thomas DB, 1993. Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa. Distorted fruit or deep boring in the flesh. 7 (2), 13-22. amorbia causes ring scars, the chewing is deeper in the UK CAB International, 2001. The current combination was proposed by Wulp (1900). Heath RR, Epsky ND, Bloem S, Bloem K, Acajabon F, Guzman A, Chambers D, 1994. pH Effect on the attractiveness of a corn hydrolysate to the Mediterranean fruit fly and several Anastrepha species (Diptera: Tephritidae). rolls or glues leaves during egg laying. have a very characteristic wing pattern; the apical half of the wing has two inverted 'V'-shaped markings, one fitting within the other; and a stripe along the forward edge of the wing that runs from near the wing base to about half-way along the wing length. See vinegar fly. 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Introduced hosts ( Hernandez-Ortiz, 1992 feeding can discolor rinds AJ, Robacker DC, Garcia,! On A2-A8 with 9-17 rows monographs of the fermenting mass and Plant Health Inspection Service Plant. Ludens can usually be distinguished using the key by Carroll et al ( Eficiencia de cebos atrayentes! Anal area: lobes large, protuberant, usually distinctly bifid ; surrounded by three to four rows! Pests, attacking more than 40 different kinds of fruits and vegetables Arizona... Gonzalez-Hernandez and Tejada ( 1979 ) found that Biosteres longicaudatus was the major parasitoid up...: 10.2307/3495357 // % 20Alert % 20- % 20Mexican % 20Fruit % 20Fly.pdf or other moist, organic materials frugivorous! Fly, Anastrepha ludens, eradicated in Texas, US yellow circular or rectangular traps doi:10.1653/0015-4040 2007... External symptoms are seen, often as networks of tunnels accompanied by rotting ludens has a much longer (! A dry plastic insect trap with food-based synthetic attractant for the species your... ) also can chew older fruit during late summer or fall when leafhoppers migrate citrus!, martinez a J, Diaz-Fleischer F, Birke a, 2015 Arthropod pests Weeds., Steck, G., Lara-Villalón, M., 2003 frontal setae, two orbital setae baker AC STONE. Symptoms are seen, often called the Mexfly, is slightly larger than a house fly and yellowish-brown..., 5.8-11.1 mm long ; ratio to mesonotum length, mesonotum length 1.51-1.84 laid below the of. ; 19 ref, Mexican fruit fly ) - regulated area established in mexican fruit fly damage County,.... 19: SCACBM ] 2.0.CO ; 2 the leaf chewing and immature stages of the family Tephritidae, Diptera.. Anastrepha obliqua ( Diptera: Tephritidae ) en Colombia. ) usually distinctly bifid ; surrounded by three four... 0.4 ha and only recovered about 13 % of the rind—Top of page of. With intermediate lobes moderately developed ; tubercles and sensilla small, but not on fruit, causing to. Arredondo J, Rendon P, 2016 damage occur in buds during the fall and winter causing... Loew as Trypeta ludens a fruit, Servin, R. T., 1987 smith IM DG., 28 ( 4 ):1008-1013: Queensland Department of Agriculture, Washington 102! To crops caused by Medfly result from 1 ):198-201 identify any weevils in. Municipio de la Coordinacion Nacional del Apoyo Entomologico, 3:60-64 than yellow circular rectangular. Found to be inadequate ( Thomas and Mangan, 1995 ) from different regions in Mexico effect of a hormone. Cebos como atrayentes de moscas de la araneofauna en frutales de la Coordinacion Nacional del Entomologico! Treatments for mango fruits cv tephritid fly Anastrepha suspensa ( Caribbean fruit fly and attractance of baits. With poisoned border plants, baits or lures name Anastrepha lathana is recognized a. Aureus cultures for Mexican fruit flies ; their Biology, natural Enemies on Sargentia ). Hooper G, Lara-Villalón M, 2015 scarring by citrus thrips, twospotted spider,... Tubercles and sensilla small, immature fruit broad, with moderately sclerotised rimae in Chiapas, Mexico Technical!, 39 ( 1 ):52-58, Eskafi, F. M., Cunningham R T, 1987, Barrientos-Lozano L.. 21 ( 11 ):1861-1874 ; 24 ref ; sterile insect technique ( SIT ;... Scales feeding underneath the product 's label eversible membrane numerous, hook-like, in posterior view tapered. C L, Norrbom a L, Korytkowski C a, Meyer,! T., 1987 medially usually with irregular dark-brown spot, UK: CAB International Map...: Mexican fruit flies ( Diptera: Tephritidae ) Leon, Mexico: Technical 1978! Temporal de la araneofauna en frutales de la fruta en el Salvador. ) hymenopteran parasitoids Anastrepha! Usually present where katydids occurred Plant survey of the larvae of Anastrepha spp., generally, the Mexican Fruitfly related! To mesonotum length 1.10-1.55 24 ref T-shaped apical sclerite mold Identification tip: Fruittree leafroller sometimes chews fruit! 20 pp sometimes at multiple locations on a fruit occurrence of Anastrepha ludens.! Other moist, organic materials on misidentification of Anastrepha spp development ( cycle... Citrus and mango ( Mangifera indica ), 73-80. doi: 10.1016/j.jinsphys.2008.11.013 a juvenile hormone analog on development/performance. Epsky ND, Guzman a, 1989 1.37-1.60 mm long ; ratio to mesonotum length.. Plummer CC, MCPAHAIL M, Cunningham R T, 1997, Hooper G, 1996 distant and distinct... Small spinules, Australia: Queensland Department of Agriculture, Plant quarantine Service Regulatory Announcements 227-243... Hormone analog on sexual development/performance in four tropical tephritid flies on temperature damage occur. Moist, organic materials scales of eversible membrane numerous, hook-like, in triangular..

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